This does not have to be an ABA or VB classroom!
The following is just so you can get a taste of what should be individualized in the IEP.
Let’s first define
Academic, behavioral, functional, or social needs that interfere with proficient knowledge and skill acquisition, retention, expression, and application which are required to address gaps and accelerate progress toward grade level standards and provide the student access to the general curriculum.
Specially designed instruction is provided to meet the individualized needs of students with disabilities and are documented in their IEP. They are necessary to address gaps and accelerate academic, behavioral, and functional progress toward grade level standards and provide the student access to the curriculum. SDIs are a service, not a place, and are not defined by where they occur. The SDI may change over time so it is very important to be aware of how the SDI effectiveness will be measured and monitored. Academic, behavioral, functional, social, or academic needs that interfere with proficient knowledge and skill acquisition, retention, expression, and application are addressed by SDIs and thus are required to access the curriculum. SDIs are not an accommodation and/or modification. Specially designed instruction is delivered in a highly structured manner with frequent progress monitoring
Supplementary aids and services are aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.
Their purpose is to support students with disabilities as active participants with nondisabled peers as well as to enable their access to the general curriculum. This includes modification to the general curriculum.
Supplementary aids and services should:
All goals must have baselines or present levels of performance.
What ABA Needs, SDIs, and Goals could look like.
This does not have to be an ABA or VB classroom
The following is just so you can get a taste of what should be individualized in the IEP.
EDUCATIONAL NEEDS RELATED TO STUDENT'S DISABILITY:
ACADEMIC, DEVELOPMENTAL, AND FUNCTIONAL
Who, What, Where questions
Manding for help (asking)
Count to 100
Reciprocate, Initiate, and make close statements
Addition and Subtraction
Independent Play Skills
Peer Skills (Social Skills)
Attention to tasks
Generalization of skills across environment(s)
Behavior: noncompliance, task avoidance
Single leg skills such as hopping
Accuracy and quality of throwing and catching with a small ball
Locomotor Skill(s): skipping
Spatial Awareness: Safety Skills
Ball Skills: Rolling, Tossing, Catching
Independence in pencil grasp
Self-care skills (clothing fasteners; tying shoelaces; managing containers and eating utensils; blowing nose with tissue)
Sensory processing skills
answering who, what, where questions
social communication regarding greeting, responding, and closing communicative attempts
basic language concepts
Vocabulary skills regarding describing features
Expressive and Pragmatic Language
SOME SAMPLE GOALS
(Baselines to be included, prompt hierarchy for all data to be documented)
During instructional time in the AS classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Student will receptively and expressively identify 12 prepositions (in, on, under, in front, next to, behind, into, back, beside, top, bottom, over) using objects, his body and pictures for 100% of the time for 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (AS classroom, Speech Therapy and home).
During instructional time in the AS classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Student will receptively and expressively identify 5 pronouns (he, she, they, him, her) with pictures and then generalize these pronouns into the natural environment 100% of the time over 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (AS classroom, Speech Therapy and home).
During instruction in the AS classroom and at home Student will independently engage with 15 different work tasks (worksheet) or skill play manipulatives (puzzle, tangrams, sequencing, etc) for 5 minutes 100% of the time over three consecutive data collection days in both environments.
During instructional time in the AS classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Student will demonstrate understanding who, what, and where questions 100% of the time over three consecutive data collection days in each environment (AS classroom, Speech Therapy and home). Student will answer 25 rote who questions, 25 rote what questions, and 25 rote where questions each with 100% mastery.
During instructional time in the AS classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Student will demonstrate expressive understanding of 15 regular and irregular past tense verbs during 1:1 instruction and in the natural environment 100% of the time for 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (AS classroom, Speech Therapy and home).
During instructional time in the AS classroom and home program sessions, Student will be able to spell 100 sight words aloud and on paper when given the word orally 100% of the time over three consecutive data collection days in each environment (AS classroom and home).
During instruction in the AS classroom Student will count from 1-100 with 100% accuracy over three consecutive data collection days
During instruction in the AS classroom Student will identify the day, month, date, year and season with 100% mastery (5pts. out of a possible 5 pts.) on 5 days of consecutive data collection.
During instruction in the AS classroom Student will add and subtract numbers up to 20 at least 85% of the time over three consecutive data collection days.
During instruction in the AS classroom Student will compare numbers (greater than, less than, equal to) up to 20 85% of the time over three consecutive data collection days
During 1:1 instruction in the AS classroom and Speech Therapy classroom, Student will exactly repeat 10 word sentences that include pronouns, adverbs, adjectives, verb tenses, contractions, and prepositions with 100% accuracy over 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (AS classroom, Speech Therapy and home).
Student will name 5 items in 25 different categories with 100% mastery
During instructional time in the AS classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions when presented with 5 novel pictures, Student will describe the picture using a carrier phrase, descriptor word, feature, function, and class 100% of the time over 3 consecutive data collection days
During instruction time in the AS classroom Student will independently mand (request) for help, objects, and activities by making eye contact or referencing the item AND using at least 3 word sentences 100% of the time over 3 consecutive data collection days.
During instruction in the AS classroom, when given a variety of one-step direction(s) comprised of a known skill (at least 5 per day), Student will be able to follow the direction within 30 seconds with 85% accuracy over 3 out 3 consecutive data collection days, sustained over 3 months.
Student will independently use a tripod grasp on writing utensils for 4 minutes during writing and drawing tasks for 3 consecutive observations as measured once monthly.
While using a pencil without a pencil grip and writing on 5/8” lined paper with a dashed midline, Student will write the numbers 1-10 and his first name and last name scoring 2/2 points on the writing checklist
for 3 consecutive observations as measured once per month.
While using a pencil without a pencil grip and writing on 5/8” lined paper with a dashed midline, Student will copy a 3 to 4 word sentence and achieve 3/3 points on the writing checklist for 3 consecutive observations as measured once per month.
Behavior: During instruction in the AS classroom, when given a variety of one-step direction(s) comprised of a known skill (at least 5 per day), Student will be able to follow the direction within 30 seconds with 85% accuracy over 3 out 3 consecutive data collection days, sustained over 3 months.
INTRO /BASIC SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION FOR CLASSROOM
Sample of SDI
The guidelines for instruction provided to Student includes Individualized instructional program using a research based systematic, highly consistent, intensive, and structured one to one training using Skinner's scientific principles of learning and behavioral motivation to effectively teach a student to use language not just for labeling but rather for communication by focusing on the consequences of what they do and how it affects what they learn and do in the future.
Improved behaviors are demonstrated through reliable relationships between procedures used and the changes in student's behavior using positive reinforcement in order to increase desired behaviors, social interactions and decreased prompts to independence.
ABLLS-R data and VB-MAPP data will be used to modify the program goals that address student's unique needs, potential and progress rates. The ABLLS-R, VB-MAPP will be on-going updated every 4 months and AFLS and Barriers assessment will be updated at least annually for Student. Programming will use spiraling review of a functional (AFLS) and behavioral skill curriculum (VB Mapp and ABLLS-R) individualized to the student's unique needs and modified by BCBA based on functional assessments and observations each month.
Programming to be overseen by a BCBA who has experience in VB program development and fidelity checks with teaching children with limited verbal ability to communicate, to create and develop connections between a word and its meaning by using echoics, mands, tacts, intra-verbals, errorless learning, pairing protocols, pivotal response training, video modeling, discrete trial training, natural environment training with integrated and coordinated community and across environment reinforcement.
BCBA will provide frequent weekly and monthly analysis using the coordinated use of monthly functional assessments, interviews, and direct observations.
Additional goal analysis and program analysis supervision and coordination will be provided by a BCBA to promoted flexible thinking, personal relationship development, social connections and interactions, emotional bonds, and shared experiences through the use of emotional referencing, social coordination, declarative language, flexible thinking, perspective taking, theory of mind skills, joint attention, relational information processing, foresight and hindsight through the development of developmentally appropriate objectives to everyday situations and language development.
Assistive technology (ie: Ipad, flipcam, smart board) daily can be used for the following tasks: pre-teaching concepts, reinforcing concepts previously taught, video modeling (should include labeling of skill with instruction), and task analysis. This should occur in both the general education classroom and special education classroom.
When Student is included in daily structured and non-structured settings his inclusion should be facilitated to interact with peers and actively participate by his 1:1 assistant or special or general education teacher, with participation data being taken during inclusion.
Student will participate in a daily sensory diet created by the Occupational Therapist to improve his sensory processing needs. This sensory diet will be revised twice a month and sent home according to his needs, along with a progress note including OT observations and input from the team. Sensory diet supplies will travel with Student to all rooms and activities. The following strategies will always be included in the sensory diet which is reviewed and up-dated if necessary, twice per month:
During 1:1 instruction Student will receive high levels of reinforcement, decreased verbal and auditory distractions that are antecedents to Student's behaviors. Preferred items should be used as reinforcers. Limit visual distractions for Student.
Data sheets for across on-going environments to be developed by BCBA in consult with team. Daily data will be collected on direction following by aides and teachers. Data will be graphed monthly and contain an anecdotal summary of progress.
Goals will require Student to work to independent mastery of 85% in 3 environments prior to progressing to next concept or skill (school: special education setting & inclusive setting, home,). Determination of mastery may also include alternative presentations of material or skill (i.e. horizontal vs. vertical) Determination of mastery should not be assessed using pattern presentations.
Level of prompts (verbal, physical, visual) as well as frequency will be recorded on all data points for progress monitoring on all goals. Daily prompt hierarchy using textual prompts, model/visual, gestural, verbal/non specified, verbal cues, and physical prompts. only as necessary or needed, to elicit target behaviors will be used with systematic fade-out and documented in present levels of independence for his goals/objectives.
Mastered skills are forwarded to home programing for reinforcement and generalization in N.E.T. across at least 2 individuals.
Program (goal and data) books are to be maintained in the classroom and home with the next three objectives listed.
Student benefits from daily generalization with multiple exemplars across stimuli, people, and settings
Skills should be supplemented daily with novel materials to assess application and generalization of skills.
Monthly team meetings include a brief summary of progress towards goals by BCBA, program modifications, concerns and future training needs; additional training hours for all IEP team members to be determined by the team on a monthly basis.
BCBA hours to include on-going curriculum modifications, behavioral data analysis, program implementation fidelity checks, monthly team meetings, monthly BCBA reports, developing & implementing function-focused interventions, ensuring generalization of skills and transference of skills to the home program for reinforcement in the community setting, updating teaching material/curriculum and providing modeling of new programs and behavioral interventions.
The teacher will provide a daily limited number of short directions rather than lengthy instructions, since Student is most successful with highly structured short assignments.
Answers provided by Student during instructional and assessment periods do not need
to be expressive, answers given using non-verbal (i.e. receptive - pointing or gesture) should be accepted.
Visual schedule and task analysis should be used during instructional sessions. Student benefits from use of daily visual checklist of task order and/or expectations to aid in teaching specific skills.
Student benefits from using daily integrated multi-modality instruction including modeling, choices explicit instruction, repetition, rephrasing, visual cues, graphic organizers, chunking of material, wait time, use of manipulatives and memory strategies.
Student will be given positive on-going reinforcement for all joint attention attempts (eye contact, body toward speaker, asking for a break etc.) throughout the school and by all staff members.
Student will be monitored at all times due to lack of socialization skills and safety issues.
Teachers and Therapists will provide weekly communication sheet in regard to progress monitoring and recommendations for reinforcement at home of mastered items/skills to the parents.
Adults will model and encourage Student daily to imitate functional communication (i.e. ask to go see something instead of just eloping or grabbing from the area). Facilitate Student's use of appropriate language when with peers in hallway, playground etc., and also when requesting attention.
BCBA consult to VB program at school
Positive Behavior Supports:
Teacher(s) will visually limit, as needed, the number of problems per page.
Strategies for Direct Instruction:
Strategies for Transitioning:
Strategies for Regular Education Classroom:
Strategies to Teach New Behavior:
ABA Home Service Program (Hours to be determined)
Direct Therapy at home: __ hours a week of ABA therapy at home.
ABA Consultation with BCBA for ___ hours per month to take place at home and school.
BCBA behavioral training up to 6 hours for new staff at home or at school
Monthly Team meetings an additional 2 hours per month for up to 3 therapists and the BCBA (maximum of 8 hours per month).
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Marie Lewis is an author, consultant, and national speaker on best practices in education advocacy. She is a parent of 3 children and a Disability Case Manager, Board Certified Education Advocate, and Behavior Specialist Consultant. She has assisted in the development of thousands of IEPs nationally and consults on developing appropriately individualized IEPs that are outcome-based vs legally sufficient. She brings a great depth of expertise, practical experience, and compassion to her work as well as expert insight, vision, and systemic thinking. She is passionate and funny and she always inspires and informs.
MJ Gore has an MEd in counseling and a degree in elementary education and natural sciences. She worked as a life-skills and learning support teacher She has been honored with the Presidential Volunteer Service Award. She is the Director and on the faculty at the National Special Education Advocacy Institute. Her passion is social justice, especially in the area of education. She is a Board Certified Education Advocate who teaches professional advocates, educators, and clinicians the best practices in education advocacy.
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